Endoscopy

It combines of two Categories:

Laparoscopy

What it means?

Laparoscopy is a procedure by which a telescope is introduced into the abdominal cavity to assess the pelvic organs and perform any required surgery. It may be diagnostic or operative.

Who are suitable candidates?

  • Patients with unexplained infertility – diagnostic laparoscopy to rule out peritoneal endometriosis, etc.
  • To check for tubal patency
  • Operative
    • Myomectomy – removal of fibroid
    • Cystectomy – removal of endometriotic or other ovarian cysts
    • adhesiolysis
    • Salpingectomy for ectopic pregnancy, hydrosalpinx
    • Tubal surgery – recanalization
    • Ovarian drilling
    • Hysterectomy – removal of uterus

Who should not get laparoscopy?

Patient with multiple medical conditions who cannot undergo anaesthesia

What are its main steps?

  • Complete workup of patient is done to assess preoperative status and suitability for anaesthesia
  • Patient is kept under overnight fasting
  • Surgery performed under general anaesthesia
  • Telescope and instruments introduced from small puncture sites on the abdomen
  • Patient kept under observation for 4-5 hours post-operative

Advantages

  • Short hospital stay
  • Faster recovery
  • Small scar

Disadvantages

  • Experienced surgeon necessary

Hysteroscopy

What it means?

Hysteroscopy is a procedure by which a telescope is introduced into the uterine cavity to assess the uterus and perform any required surgery. It may be diagnostic or operative.

Who are suitable candidates?

  • Diagnostic –
    • Before undergoing embryo transfer. In addition to finding abnormalities it stimulates the endometrium for implantation
    • In case of abnormal uterine bleeding or postmenopausal bleeding
    • Thin endometrium
  • Operative –
    • Myomectomy – removal of fibroid
    • Polypectomy removal of endometrial polyp
    • Adhesiolysis
    • Septum resection
    • Correction of uterine anomalies

Who should not get laparoscopy?

Patient with multiple medical conditions who cannot undergo anaesthesia

What are its main steps?

  • Complete workup of patient is done to assess preoperative status and suitability for anaesthesia
  • Patient is kept under overnight fasting
  • Surgery performed under general anaesthesia
  • Telescope and instruments introduced from cervical canal
  • Patient kept under observation for 4-5 hours post-operative

Advantages

  • Short hospital stay – OPD procedure
  • No cut made in abdomen

Disadvantages

  • Experienced surgeon necessary